WWII Recognition Models
(a.k.a. ID models, Spotter models)

Framburg   Dale Models
South Salem Models   Cruver
Comet Model Airplane   Comet/Authenticast
Wiking   Bessarabis
Rodach   Australia/New Zealand
U.S. Military Silhouette Models   Goebel
Other German ID Models   Other U.S. Recognition Aides
StromBecker   Recent Vintage Recognition Models (U.S.)
 

Civilian Observers in WWII - The AWS

References


What are Recognition models?

Recognition models, also referred to as ID models or spotters models, were used by the armed forces to train troops to identify ships, airplanes and ground vehicles. This aided in many areas, from preventing casualties from friendly fire, to better estimates of enemy troop strength. It was not unusual for spotter models to come in at least two scales. A small scale for students to use, and a large scale 'teachers model' to aid the instructor in describing the important aspects of a particular vehicle. Spotter models were made of many different materials, including lead/zinc alloys, plastic/cellulose acetate, and wood. In addition to recognition models, the government also issue recognition cards, pamphlets, and even used kites with airplane silhouettes to help train soldiers.

The next several sections will review Recognition Models from various makers, most of WWII vintage.

The pictures below are from the Las Vegas Army Air Force Flexible Gunnery School, circa 1943

LVAAFYBpg56airplanestext.jpg

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Las Vegas AAF
Flexible Gunnery School
LVAAFYBpg56aircraft.jpg

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Classroom instruction using
 ID models to recognize various
types of Aircraft.
 
Las Vegas Army Air Force
Flexible Gunnery School, circa 1943


Framburg

H.A. Framburg and CO. was (and is) a manufacturer of lamps and other lighting products. In WWI, Framburg helped the war effort by making high powered search lights. During WWII, Framburg was awarded contracts to build recognition models. Framburg built models for both ships and land vehicles (tanks and armoured cars). Framburg built both the smaller scale ships (1:1200) and larger scale (1:500). Framburg also build a series of large (1:36) land vehicle models. These models are hollow, with a large oval hole in the base. They were cast in one piece, so none of the parts (turret, etc.) articulate. In the mid 40's, Framburg returned to the lighting business, and ceased making ID models.

FramburgSpotlights.jpg

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Framburg made Searchlights in WWI
RFramburgFactory.jpg

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Framburg Factory

Ships

FramburgShipBoxLabela.jpg

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Teachers Models

RFramburgShip2.jpg
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Framburg Ship, Teachers model
British Warship "Renown"
RFramburgShip3.jpg
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Framburg Ship, Teachers model
British Warship "Renown"
RFramburgShipA.jpg
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Framburg Ship, Teachers model
British Warship "Renown"

Thanks to Paul C. for the Framburg Teachers Model  pictures of the Renown.

RFramburgTeachersBase2.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Base
Fiji Class
RMay16$39.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Base
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersFiji1.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersFiji2.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersFiji3.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersFiji4.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersFiji5.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Fiji Class
 

My Framburg Teachers Model - Southhampton

RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton (1).jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton
RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton (2).jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton
RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton (3).jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton
RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton (5).jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton
RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton (4).jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton 
RFramburgTeachersSouthhampton.jpg

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Framburg Teachers Model
Southhampton

Student Model


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Framburg British T class

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Framburg British T class

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Framburg British T class

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Framburg British T class
  
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Framburg British T class

Comparison of Student and Teacher Models

RFramburgTeachersCompFiji1.jpg

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Comparison - Framburg
Student and Teacher models
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersCompFiji4.jpg

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Comparison - Framburg
Student and Teacher models
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersCompFiji2.jpg

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Comparison - Framburg
Student and Teacher models
Fiji Class
RFramburgTeachersCompFiji3.jpg

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Comparison - Framburg
Student and Teacher models
Fiji Class

Another Framburg ship, Le Fantastique. Note the packaging, and the Framburg Logo on the base of this "stand alone" release of the ship.

Thanks to Craig S for the pictures of Le Fantastique!

RFramburgLeFanstastiqueShip4.jpg

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Framburg Le Fanstastique
RFramburgLeFanstastiqueShip1.jpg

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Framburg Le Fanstastique
RFramburgLeFanstastiqueShip2.jpg

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Framburg Le Fanstastique
RFramburgLeFanstastiqueShip3.jpg

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Framburg Le Fanstastique
Note the Logo...

As seen above, the ships were often mounted on light blue or gray boards. These boards were housed in a wooden case (box), often with ships from the same country (Germany, USA, etc)
.

FramburgAddress.jpg

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Land Vehicles

RFramburgShermanA.jpg
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Framburg Sherman
RFramburgShermanB.jpg
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Framburg Sherman
RFramburgShermanC.jpg
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Framburg Sherman, base
note the words
"MED.TANK M-4"
RFramburgShermanD.jpg
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Framburg Sherman, base
note the words
"GENERAL SHERMAN"
RFramburgT35.jpg
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Framburg T35.
RFramburgT35base.jpg
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Framburg T35 base

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Framburg T38G

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Framburg T38G

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Framburg T38G

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Framburg Stuart

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Framburg Stuart


 


Below is a set of Framburg Models from Joseph F. Slisinger Jr. Mr Slisinger was an airborne officer in the 17th Airborne and 82nd at the end of the WWII. He picked these models up when he was in the army. Thanks Mr Slisinger

RFramburgJSlisingerArmCar.jpg
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Framburg Armored Car
RFramburgJSlisingerHalftrack.jpg
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Framburg Halftrack
RFramburgJSlisingerLightTank.jpg
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Framburg German Light Tank
RFramburgJSlisingerPreist.jpg
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Framburg Priest
RFramburgJSlisingerStuart.jpg
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Framburg Stuart
RFramburgJSlisingerT35too.jpg
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Framburg T35
RFramburgJSlisingerT38.jpg
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Framburg T38
RFramburgJSlisinger8wheel.jpg
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Framburg German armored car


 


 

RFramburgGrant2.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
RFramburgGrant3.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant3
RFramburgGrant4.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
RFramburgGrant1.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant

Thanks Pat!


 

Grantv1.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv2.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv3.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv4.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv5.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv6.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Grantv7.jpg

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Framburg M-3 Grant
Thanks Mike!
Priestv1.jpg

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Framburg Priest
Priestv2.jpg

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Framburg Priest
Priestv3.jpg

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Framburg Priest
Priestv4.jpg

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Framburg Priest
Priestv5.jpg

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Framburg Priest
Priestv6.jpg

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Framburg Priest
   

These pictures come from James Lafer. Note how the wheels are cast as part of the model, rather than being attached by axles, and capable of movement. Thanks James!

RFramburgWheelsAttached2.jpg

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RFramburgWheelsAttached6.jpg

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RFramburgWheelsAttached3.jpg

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RFramburgWheelsAttached4.jpg

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RFramburgWheelsAttached5.jpg

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RFramburgWheelsAttached1.jpg

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FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2a.jpg

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Framburg PZKW2
FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2b.jpg

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Framburg PZKW2
FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2COMMANDTANKa.jpg

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Framburg PZKW2
command tank
FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2COMMANDTANKab.jpg

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Framburg PZKW2
command tank

Thanks to spinnin4s!


FramGermAmphibA.jpg

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Framburg German
Amphibious tank
FramGermAmphibB.jpg

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Framburg German
Amphibious tank
FramGermAmphibC.jpg

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Framburg German
Amphibious tank

Thanks to Brit!


FramburgShermanCastHull1.JPG

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Framburg Sherman
Cast Hull
FramburgShermanCastHull2.JPG

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Framburg Sherman
Cast Hull - base
FramburgShermanCastHull3.JPG

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Framburg Sherman
Cast Hull
FramburgShermanHeadlamps2.JPG

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Framburg variant
Sherman with Headlamps
base
FramburgShermanHeadlamps3.JPG

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Framburg variant
Sherman with Headlamps
base
FramburgShermanHeadlamps1.JPG

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Framburg variant
Sherman with Headlamps
base

Shown above are the Sherman with a cast hull (top row) and an unusual variant with headlights which stick well above the chassis (bottom row).

The cast hull Sherman has the rounded chassis (characteristic of the cast hull), vents on the back, access panels on the rear, and "capped" barrel.

The tank on the bottom row has headlight which protrude from the chassis. This is as compared to the other versions which have low, bulnous headlights which are cast as part of the hull. The Sherman also lacks the words "General Sherman" on the base, and is simply marked MED. TANK M-4-2.

Thanks to Greg W. for the pictures and the discussions!



A PARTIAL listing of Framburg 1:36 Land Vehicles - a work in progress!

Vehicle Type Markings Comments    
M-4 Sherman - welded hull "MED TANK M-4  GENERAL SHERMAN" angular welded hull RFramburgShermanB.jpg
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RFramburgShermanC.jpg
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M-4 Sherman - cast hull "MED. TANK M-4-2  MED TANK M4" rounded cast hull FramburgShermanCastHull1.JPG

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Thanks Greg W
FramburgShermanCastHull2.JPG

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Thanks Greg W
Priest "106 MM HOWITZER MOTOR T 32 M7"   Priestv2.jpg

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Thanks Mike
 
T-17 Deerhound   6 wheels, wheels are an integrated part of the chassis (i.e. not axles, not free rolling) RFramburgWheelsAttached2.jpg

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Thanks James
 
T-17E Staghound Armored car "ARMORED CAR T-17" 4 wheels, wheels are an integrated part of the chassis (i.e. not axles, not free rolling) RFramburgWheelsAttached4.jpg

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Thanks James
 
M-3 Medium Tank  Grant ”Med. Tank M-3”   Grantv7.jpg

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Thanks Mike
Grantv1.jpg

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Thanks Mike
General Stuart "LIGHT-TANK-M5"   
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FramStuartAAv2.jpg

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US Heavy tank M-6 "HEAVY TANK M-6"   M6tankv5.jpg

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M6tankv3.jpg

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Jeep "JEEP"     FramWillysJeepAA (4).jpg

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Halftrack with 75 mm gun "75 MM. GUN CAR.M-3"      
M-3 A-1 Scout Car "SCOUT CAR M-3 A-1" Wheeled scout car, open back, 3 machine guns M2A1ScoutCarAAv1.jpg

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M2A1ScoutCarAAv2.jpg

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Half track -personnel carrier "HALF TRK.PERS. CAR.M-3"  "HALF??" halftrack, open back with seats    
Half track scout car?? "HALF TRK CAR M-2" Open back with machine guns    
37 mm Gun Motor Carriage M6   Heavily armed truck    
M5 Self Propelled gun "75 MMGUN CAR M-5" 3 inch self propelled gun M5_3AAv1.jpg

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M5_3AAv4.jpg

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Panzer IV        
Panzer III "GER. LIGHT MED. TANK PZ.KW.3 TYPE"C".      
Panzer II "GER. LIGHT TANK PZ:KW:2"   FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2a.jpg

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Thanks spinnin4s
GermanPzkw2AA (3).jpg

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Panzer I Command tank "GER LIGHT TANK. P.Z.K.W.1 COMMAND TANK"   FramGERLIGHTTANKPZKW2COMMANDTANKa.jpg

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Thanks spinnin4s
GermanPZKW1AA (3).jpg

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Panzer I German Light Tank PZ.K.W.1 MAYBACH 1936      
Amphibious tank: "German Light Amphibian Tank CKDF4 HE"   FramGermAmphibA.jpg

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Thanks Brit
FramGermAmphibC.jpg

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Thanks Brit
German T-35 Light Tank "GER. LIGHT MED.TANK L.T.35"   RFramburgT35.jpg
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RFramburgT35base.jpg
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German T-38 Light Tank "PRAGA? GER. TANK 8 TON T.N.H-P.F.X (CZECH)   
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German Light Medium tank (ST-39) "GER LIGHT MED TANK CK.D.V.8.H"?   RFramburgJSlisingerLightTank.jpg
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Thanks Mr Slisinger
GermanLtMedtankAA (2).jpg

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German Heavy Tank "GERM.HVY.TANK.PZ V"? Early tank - not a Panther    
German armoured car SDKFZ 223D "GER. LIGHT ARM.CAR SD:KFZ:223 D" 2 wheel armored car Framburgsdkfz223HorchAA (4).jpg

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Framburgsdkfz223HorchAA (6).jpg

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German 8 wheeled armoured car   8 wheel armored car RFramburgJSlisinger8wheel.jpg
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Thanks Mr Slisinger
 


Compact  list

Vehicle Type Markings
M-4 Sherman - welded hull "MED TANK M-4  GENERAL SHERMAN"
M-4 Sherman - cast hull "MED. TANK M-4-2  MED TANK M4"
Priest "106 MM HOWITZER MOTOR T 32 M7"
T-17 Deerhound  
T-17E Staghound Armored car "ARMORED CAR T-17"
M-3 Medium Tank  Grant ”Med. Tank M-3”
General Stuart "LIGHT-TANK-M5"
US Heavy tank M-6 "HEAVY TANK M-6"
Jeep "JEEP"
Halftrack with 75 mm gun "75 MM. GUN CAR.M-3"
M-3 A-1 Scout Car "SCOUT CAR M-3 A-1"
Half track -personnel carrier "HALF TRK.PERS. CAR.M-3"  "HALF??"
Half track scout car?? "HALF TRK CAR M-2"
37 mm Gun Motor Carriage M6  
M5 Self Propelled gun "75 MMGUN CAR M-5"
Panzer IV  
Panzer III "GER. LIGHT MED. TANK PZ.KW.3 TYPE"C".
Panzer II "GER. LIGHT TANK PZ:KW:2"
Panzer I Command tank "GER LIGHT TANK. P.Z.K.W.1 COMMAND TANK"
Panzer I German Light Tank PZ.K.W.1 MAYBACH 1936
Amphibious tank: "German Light Amphibian Tank CKDF4 HE"
 Panzer I command tank "GER. LIGHT TANK P.Z.K.W.1 COMMAND TANK"
German T-35 Light Tank "GER. LIGHT MED.TANK L.T.35"
German T-38 Light Tank "PRAGA? GER. TANK 8 TON T.N.H-P.F.X (CZECH)
German Light Medium tank (ST-39) "GER LIGHT MED TANK CK.D.V.8.H"?
German Heavy Tank "GERM.HVY.TANK.PZ V"?
German armoured car SDKFZ 223D "GER. LIGHT ARM.CAR SD:KFZ:223 D"
German 8 wheeled armoured car  

Thanks also to Jeff L.


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Dale Models

Near the end of WWII, Framburg decided to refocus on lighting fixtures. An employee, Mr. Dale, left the company and started producing models with the molds under arrangement with Framburg (note that in the brochure blow that Dale Model is the "official distributor" for Framburg). In fact, several Framburg Ship Model sets are listed as manufactured at 3320 Carroll Ave in Chicago, and Dale model was located at 3328 Carroll Ave in Chicago!

Dale modified the original Framburg land vehicle molds by making two fundamental changes. First he added wheels to the base, allowing the model to roll. Second he separated the mold into parts, casting the turret separately from the chassis. This allowed the turret to rotate. These changes allowed Dale to market the models as toys, and made them popular with children. Some Dale models appear to be "transitional", however, with wheels added, but without the turret modification. Dale also continued to manufacture and distribute the Framburg line of ship models

An interesting detail worth noting is the detail on the machine gun (as on the Priest, and other models). Some models were released with very detailed machine guns. Others with no more than a elongated rectangular bar.

RDaleBrochureA.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure. Land Vehicles
RDaleBrochureB.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure. Land Vehicles
RDaleBrochureC.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure. Land Vehicles
RDaleShip1.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure, Ships
RDaleShip2.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure, Ships
RDaleShip3.jpg
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Dale Model Company
brochure, Ships
RDaleBoxA3.jpg

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RDaleShermanLabelb.jpg

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RDaleT17Labelb.jpg

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My thanks to Connie for the Dale Model brochure pictures

RDaleShermanA.jpg
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Dale Model Company
Sherman Tank
RDaleShermanB.jpg
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Dale Model Company
Sherman Tank
RDaleShermanC.jpg
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Dale Model Company
Sherman Tank, base
RFramburgShermanD.jpg
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Dale Sherman, base
note the words
"GENERAL SHERMAN"
RDaleDUKWa.jpg
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Dale Model Company
DUKW
DaleDUKWv1.jpg

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Dale Model Company
DUKW
DaleDUKWv2.jpg

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Dale Model Company
DUKW
DaleDUKWv3.jpg

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Dale Model Company
DUKW
DaleDUKWv4.jpg

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Dale Model Company
DUKW

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Dale Model Company
 T-17

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Dale Model Company
 T-17

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Dale T-17 Tire

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Dale T-17 Tire
note the Dale Model Co label
RFramburgT17v1.jpg

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Dale T17
(my second T17)
RFramburgT17v2.jpg

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Dale T17
(my second T17)
RFramburgT17v3.jpg

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Dale T17
(my second T17)
 
DaleJeep1.jpg

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Dale Model Company
 Jeep
DaleJeep2.jpg

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Dale Model Company
 Jeep
DaleJeep3.jpg

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Dale Model Company
 Jeep
DaleJeep4.jpg

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Dale Model Company
 Jeep
DaleJeep5.jpg

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Dale Model Company
 Jeep
DaleM3wGun1.jpg

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Dale Model Company
M3 w/ 75 mm Gun
Tank Destroyer
DaleM3wGun4.jpg

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Dale Model Company
M3 w/ 75 mm Gun
DaleM3wGun2.jpg

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Dale Model Company
M3 w/ 75 mm Gun
DaleM3wGun3.jpg

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Dale Model Company
M3 w/ 75 mm Gun
RFramburgPriest1.jpg

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Dale Priest
RFramburgPriest2.jpg

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Dale Priest
RFramburgPriest3.jpg

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Dale Priest
RFramburgPriest5.jpg

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Dale Priest
RFramburgPriest4.jpg

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Dale Priest
RFramburgPriest6.jpg

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Dale Priest
   
RFramburgPriestRepaint1.jpg

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Dale Priest Repaint
The main gun is not original.
but note the detail on
the machine gun
RFramburgPriestRepaint2.jpg

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Dale Priest Repaint
RFramburgPriestRepaint3.jpg

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Dale Priest Repaint
RFramburgPriestRepaint4.jpg

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Dale Priest Repaint

A nice marking which differentiates Dale wheeled vehicles is "Dale Model Company   Chicago" molded into the tire.

A Quick Framburg/Dale Models comparison

RFramburgDaleCompA.jpg
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Framburg Sherman, top
Dale Sherman, bottom
note the wheels on the
Dale Sherman
RFramburgDaleCompB.jpg
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Framburg Sherman, left
Dale Sherman, right
note the moveable turret
Dale Sherman
RFramburgDaleCompC.jpg
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Framburg Sherman, left
Dale Sherman, right

Evolution of the Sherman - Framburg to Dale

FramDaleShermCompare7.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation,
Framburg
FramDaleShermCompare1.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation,
Framburg
FramDaleShermCompare2.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation,
Framburg

Above are comparison picture of a Framburg Sherman, early Dale Sherman, and late Dale Sherman. The Framburg Sherman (as stated before) has no wheels. The early Dale has wheels, but Dale continued to use the original mould for the hull, which cast the turret and hull as one piece.

FramDaleShermCompare4.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation
FramDaleShermCompare5.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation
FramDaleShermCompare6.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation
Notice the difference in
hull length
FramDaleShermCompare3.jpg

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From Left to Right:
Dale 2nd Generation,
Dale 1st Generation
Notice the difference in
hull length

 The late model Dale had a retooled hull. The hull and turret were cast separately, allowing the turret to rotate. As a result of the retooling, there is a noticeable difference between the hull of the early and late Shermans (other than the turret is detached on the late version). The hull of the late generation Sherman is noticeably longer (approximately 1/4 inch) than the Framburg and early Dale Shermans. The details of the hull are also a bit "crisper" on the second generation model. Finally, instead of the words "Med. Tank M-4", the recast Sherman has the words "GENERAL SHERMAN"


Another example can be seen in the armored car below. For the Framburg model, with the wheels cast as part of the hull. Dale attached wheels to the hull using an axle, allowing the models to roll.

RFramburgWheelsAttached3.jpg

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Framburg photos from James Lafer

RFramburgWheelsAttached1.jpg

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RDale withWheels1.jpg

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Framburg left (no axle), Dale right (axle present)

 

A Partial list of Dale Models

Vehicle Type  
M-4 Sherman RDaleShermanA.jpg
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General Stuart RDickSModels13.jpg

66.09 KB
Thanks Dick S.
M3 Halftrack with 75 mm gun DaleM3wGun2.jpg

207.44 KB
Staghound Armored car  
M-7 Priest RFramburgPriest1.jpg

180.66 KB
Jeep DaleJeep1.jpg

221.52 KB
T-17 E Armored car RFramburgT17v1.jpg

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DUKW RDaleDUKWa.jpg
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Dick S. emailed me his recollections of Dale Models, and was then kind enough to send me pictures of his collection:

"...I remember playing "soldiers" as a kid and using dime store white metal toy soldiers and Dale Company vehicles. I never knew what they were and what their history was until discovering your fine web site. Lots of the kids that I used to play with had different toy soldiers, but somehow each of us ended up with ONE Dale model. We often traded toy soldiers, but we would only trade the Dale models on a one for one basis so nobody ever had two of them at one time. The most popular ones were the M-4, The Stuart and the M-3 half-track. The least popular ones were the Jeep and the "Duck". As you might imagine, these models were probably played to death. We always did think that they were not mere toys, but recognition models, since we also knew of the black "hard Rubber" aircraft I.D. models. Years later I was able to find a few of these models at antique flea markets and toy shows."

        " I also have another tank model that I'm not sure of. It's marked "JAPANESE AMPHIBIAN TANK" on the bottom of the right tread. It is only about 3 3/8" long, but looks like one of your photos of a "teaching model". It has it's original paint, a movable turret and no wheels on the bottom."

"The M-4 Sherman's original box has a price of $1.55 on it! The "Universal Carrier" has that name rubber stamped with dark paint on the inside of the track."

RDickSModels1.jpg

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An Authenticast model...
...Mike's comment
RDickSModels2.jpg

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RDickSModels13.jpg

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RDickSModels12.jpg

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RDickSModels14.jpg

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RDickSModels17.jpg

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RDickSModels18.jpg

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An Authenticast model...
...Mike's comment
RDickSModels11.jpg

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An Authenticast model...
...Mike's comment
RDickSModels9.jpg

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An Authenticast model...
...Mike's comment
RDickSModels3.jpg

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RDickSModels4.jpg

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Thanks Dick!


South Salem Studios

According to Fred Dorris in his article, "Ships for the Military" South Salem Studios was started by a French immigrant, Enzo Yocca. South Salem Studios produced ship models at 1:1200, 1:2000 and 1:5000 scales. Yocca's studio produced a set of models in conjunction with Comet Metal Products in 1943. South Salem Studios models were also sold in area department stores circa 1945. According to Dorris, Comet purchased South Salem in 1945 or 1946.

 

RSouthSaleStudiosA.jpg
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South Salem Studios
Top of Ad, 1945
RSouthSaleStudiosB.jpg
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South Salem Studios
Base of Ad, 1945

Below is a 1:500 scale model of the USS Missouri. The BB-63 Missouri was an "Iowa" class ship. According to the owner of this model, Salem depicts the Missouri with squared-off bridge, the way the USS Missouri and USS Wisconsin were actually built. . The Framburg version has a rounded/enclosed bridge, the way the USS New Jersey was originally built.

1:500 USS Missouri


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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

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USS Missouri, 1:500

1:1200 - USS Arkansas

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South Salem Studios
USS Arkansas
RSouthSalemArkansas2.jpg

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South Salem Studios
USS Arkansas
RSouthSalemArkansas3.jpg

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South Salem Studios
USS Arkansas
RSouthSalemArkansas1.jpg

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South Salem Studios
USS Arkansas


Merchant ships

SouthSalemMerchant4c.jpg

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SouthSalemList2.jpg

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Cruver

Cruver Company of Chicago manufactured 1:72 scale recognition models of aircraft. During the early years of the war, many airplane recognition models were carved from wood (see below). A push was made to create models from "non-essential" materials, i.e. materials not needed for weapons and other items for the war effort. The Cruver company of Chicago developed a method using cellulose acetate to create these models. Cruver models are black 'plastic' and are marked by the Cruver trademark: a "C" in a circle. Finding a Cruver model is good shape can be difficult. The material used to manufacture the models deteriorates with time, causing the models to sag, or even disintegrate.

CruverCatA.jpg

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An example of other
Cruver offerings
CruverCatepillarBox1.jpg

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Thanks to Jeff for the pictures!


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To the left is the trademark
Cruver "C" with the circle
around it.

 

Cruver also made small scale (about 1'' across airplane models, most often seen in gray plastic. Please note that even the small scale Cruver planes featured the Cruver  "C" with the circle around it trademark. These then entered the market post war as Cereal premiums (small prizes placed in cereal to lure kids into buying the product). Cruver planes were featured in Kix cereals by General Mills.

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CruverAristoCraftNew2f.jpg

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CruverNew4d.jpg

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CruverAristocraftc.jpg

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Cruver - Aristocraft
Auction
RCruver.jpg

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Cruver poster

Small scale Cruver planes

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Cruver German ME210
RBruverGermanME210B.jpg

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Cruver German ME210
RCruverME210B.jpg

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Cruver ME210
RCruverGermanAradoB.jpg

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Cruver German Arado
RCruverGeramArado.jpg

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Cruver German Arado
RCruverGermanHS129.jpg

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Cruver German HS129
RCruverGermanHS129B.jpg

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Cruver German HS129
RCruverRussianSB3.jpg

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Cruver Russian SB3
RCruverJapaneseLily.jpg

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Cruver Japanese Lily
 
RCruverJapaneseLilyB.jpg

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Cruver Japanese Lily
RCruverJapaneseLilyB2.jpg

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Cruver Japanese Lily
 

These small scale models were then released as "cereal premiums" in 1946 or 1948 (conflicting reports) and featured 24 different airplanes.

RCruverKix2.jpg

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RCruverKix4.jpg

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In addition to recognition models, Cruver other items for the military. Included amoung these were sextants and air speed "computers" (plastic dials with nomograms used to compute airspeed)

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Cruver Maritime Sextant
CruverSextantInteriorA.jpg

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RCruverAirSpeed1D.jpg

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Cruver Air Speed
Computer
RCruverAirSpeed1E.jpg

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Cruver Air Speed
Computer
RCruverAirSpeedBox.jpg

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Cruver Air Speed
Computer
RCruverAirSpeedCert.jpg

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Cruver playing cards

CruverCardsa1.jpg

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CruverCardsb1.jpg

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Comet Model Airplane and Supply
RCometAirplaneandSupply.jpg
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Early in the war when ID models were in demand and most companies could not yet meet the demand. The US Government worked with Comet Model Airplane and Supply Co. to develop a program for building 1:72 identification models (Reder, 2000). Comet provided templates and instructions for the models. The US military started the program in 1942 to train the youth of America to carve detailed ID models from wood. Diagrams, instructions and materials were distributed High School students (typically in "shop" and woodworking classes) to make these wood ID models. The models were carved of pine or basswood because balsawood was not durable enough, and was in demand for other war needs (Gayley, 2004). The models were subject to QC (usually by adult teachers), were painted black, and were then sent to military.

RCometAirplaneandSupply2.jpg
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Comet Ad.jpg

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CometAd2.jpg

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CometPlaneInstructionsB.jpg

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Thanks to Jim for the catalog pictures!

The government also provided plans and instructions directly to the public. These were also distributed to high school wood-shops for construction. Below is an partial excerpt from the book (the entire book gives extensive instructions on construction) and plans for a German FW-190.

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ID Model Building Book
Cover
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ID Model Building Book
inside cover
RIDModelBuildingBookForward.jpg

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ID Model Building Book
Contents
RIDModelBuildingBookpg1.jpg

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ID Model Building Book
 pg1
RIDModelBuildingBookpg2and3.jpg

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ID Model Building Book
pages 2 and 3
RIDModelBuildingBookRear.jpg

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ID Model Building Book
rear
RIDModelPlansFW190A.jpg

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ID Model Plans
FW-190
RIDModelPlansFW190B.jpg

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ID Model Plans
FW-190
 


Comet Metal Products/Authenticast

Abraham Slonim emigrated from Kiev Russia in the early 1900's, where he found work in the metal industry. In the 1930's Slonim started making metal soldiers, and attempted to interest the military in using diecast models as identification models. It was during this time that the name, Comet Metal Products, was first used. With the advent of WWII, Comet was commissioned by the US government to manufacture identification models for ships, planes, trucks. It is widely reported that from 1941-1945 Comet made more than 10,000,000 models of military items (Kurtz and Ehrlich, The Art of the Toy Soldier, Abbeville Press, 1987)...although later articles placed the number at about 3.5 million.  In 1945 Comet released these models to the public under the Authenticast name.These models were sold to the general public until Comet's sale in 1960.

 The 'typical' scale for the tanks is 1:108 (15 mm). Teachers models were also made at a larger scale, 1:36. One inch to nine feet (1:108) was chosen because the Navy (during WWII) decided a pilot in training looking at the model from 15 feet away (at a 45 degree angle) would be the same as a flying pilot viewing a tank from about a mile in the air. Teachers models (1" to 3 feet) fell out  of favor because 1) they cost 5 times as much to produce, and 2) the smaller models could be carried ashore in a "briefcase", making them easy to transport (New Yorker Magazine, August 19, 1950)

Early Sets - "Ships on Sticks"

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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
RCometShipsOnSticks (13).jpg

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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"
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Comet - "Ships on Sticks"

One of the earliest sets by Comet was their Ships on Sticks. These ships were each on a removable "paddle", with the name and or class of each ship displayed on the end. The base of the display is marked "Kay Display, Inc", and may or may not have the US Navy anchor symbol.

Teachers Model

Ship photos courtesy of Jeff


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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

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Comet Triptz
Teachers Model

Tanks


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One of the  planks
found inside the box of
spotter models.

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Cruiser Tank, #5005
mounted on the
plank 'insert'

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Markings on the underside
of the plank

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Universal Carrier, #5002
mounted on the other end.

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Markings on the underside
of the plank

 

Authenticast produced a fairly wide variety of airplane models at a scale of 1" to 36 feet (or 1:432). Ship models were made at 1:200 and 1:500 scale (Student and Teacher models). As stated above, tanks and land vehicles were also made at two scales, 1:108 and 1:36. Today the 1:36 scale vehicles are hard to find. See my

Authenticast tank page, my Authenticast airplanes page, and my Comet Metal Products page for more information and pictures.


Bessarabis

The information below was distilled from articles by Fred Dorris and Paul Jacobs

Another maker of US ship models was Bessarabis. Bessarabis was one of the first manufacturers of recognition models for WWII. They were produced in a small shop in New York. Fred Dorris reports that they were probably manufactured in 1941 and 1942 and that probably less than 2000 sets were manufactured. The set consisted of individual ships in cardboard boxes. The boxes where then placed in a wood case with a sliding top. Three different types of sets were thought to be manufactured. Two U.S. sets (one pre Pearl Harbor and one post), and one German set. The German sets are distinguished by a raised "G-" on the bottom followed by an number (for example G-17).

RBessarabis (1).jpg

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Bessarabis
German Navy
Wolf Class
G-17
RBessarabis (2).jpg

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Bessarabis
German Navy
Wolf Class
G-17
RBessarabis (3).jpg

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Bessarabis
German Navy
Wolf Class
G-17
RBessarabis (4).jpg

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Bessarabis
German Navy
Wolf Class
G-17
RBessarabis.jpg

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Bessarabis
German Navy
Wolf Class
G-17


Australia/New Zealand

During WWII,  ID models were manufactured for ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps). Scaled at 1/24 scale, these models were made of ceramic. The tanks measured 8-9 inches long. American, British, Australian, and Japanese tanks were made. Some of the tanks had the statistics of the tank molded as part of the base. Others did not. All seem to have one characteristic marking:
D↑D

DD1.jpg

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DD2.jpg

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DD3.jpg

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DD4.jpg

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AnzacJapanese2c.jpg

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ANZAC Japanese tank
AnzacJapanese1.jpg

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ANZAC Japanese tank
base


Thanks to Russell for the pictures!

Bryan B, and avid collector from California, sent me this list of Australian airplane recognition models

 

Model Number
BEAUFIGHTER E9/2166 
AIRSPEED OXFORD E9/2189
BEAUFORT E9/2261
SPITFIRE MK. V. TROP. E9/2275
 B-17 FORTRESS E9/2324
P-38 LIGHTNING E9/2326
MOSQUITO E9/2335
P-51D MUSTANG E9/2340
HELLDIVER E9/2349
VULTEE VENGEANCE E9/2510
CA-12 BOOMERANG E9/2990
CHERRY E9/3522
HELLCAT E9/3810
HELEN E9/3812
JILL E9/3890
IRVING E9/3929
JACK E9/3935


 

Thanks Bryan!


Wiking

 

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Wiking Models SS Hood
RWikingHood6.jpg

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Wiking Models SS Hood
RWikingHood4.jpg

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Wiking Models SS Hood
RWikingHood1.jpg

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Wiking Models SS Hood
RWikingHood2.jpg

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Wiking Models SS Hood
RWikingHood3.jpg

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Wiking Models SS Hood

 

Recognition models were not just used by the Allies. Germany also produced recognition models, the most famous being Wiking models. Wiking was started by Friedrich Karl Peltzer in 1930. Peltzer, the son of an Imperial Navy officer, produced ship models at a scale of 1:1250 and later at 1:1275. From 1939 to 1945, Wiking manufactured recognition models for the German government. The models included ships and ground vehicles.

Interestingly, as Germany fell under the influence of the Third Reich, several model builders left Wiking to later become makers of recognition models at Tremo (in England) and Comet Metal Products (in the USA).

Wiking (Viking) continued to sell the models post war, entering the US market.

WikingBrochure1d.jpg

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Rodach

I don't have much information regarding Rodach ID models. They are of German manufacture, and are made of wood. The detail appears to be quite good. They have a diagnostic "Angel" marking on the base. Many also have the marking "This is an official object. Misuse is punishable"

They may be named for the German town of Rodach. From the online Journal of the US Army 11th Armored Division (

http://www.11tharmoreddivision.com/history/151st_armored_signal_company.htm) "April 10-11: Entered Rodach—Toy tanks and cigarette lighters. Also plentiful multicolored Champagne (Pink & White)."


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Rodach T34

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Rodach T34 base

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Rodach Angel Logo

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Rodach Stug

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Rodach Stug

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RodachpzkwIVa.JPG

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Rodach Panzer IV
RodachpzkwIVb.JPG

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Rodach Panzer IV
RodachpzkwIVcJohn.JPG

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Rodach Panzer IV
RodachBox1.JPG

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Rodach Box
RodachBox2.JPG

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Rodach Box
RodachBox3.JPG

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Rodach Box  - note the
Wehrmacht stamp!

Thanks to John R for the pictures! Thanks to Ted for the information on additional model types!

A partial listing of Rodach models:
 

Churchill
T-34
 KV-1
StuG III
PZKW IV
Sherman
Panther
Tiger
German half tracks (2 types)
T34-76
T34-85

Pictured below is Ted's collection of ID models - WOW!

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RTedsRodach4a.jpg

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Goebel


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A rather unique, and quite rare, set of ID models are the Goebel models. These are small, approximately 1/100, id models made of ceramic. On the base the have the diagnostic Goebel Company Wide Crown Trademark. For tanks with turrets which rotate, this crown is on a "plug", which secures the turret to the hull. On the other models, the crown is imprinted upon the base.

The tanks were manufactured by the German porcelain company, W.Goebel Porzellanfabrik. In 1879, the Goebel's started manufacturing porcelain. By the late 30's, they started creating the now famous of figurines based on the artwork of Sister M.I.Hummel. When World War II began, although a small number of figurines were made for export, the German government required Goebel to make dinnerware for the military, communications insulators, and other "useful" items. Additionally, Goebel was instructed to created "sand table" models. The models were placed on a large table representing the field of battle, and were used to visualize the tactical distribution of various military units.

In "Miller on Hummels" Robert Miller reports seeing 100-150 tanks of various sizes and colors in the Geobel Factory in Germany during a visit in the early 1990's

Please see the References, below


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Goebel Tiger Tank

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Goebel Tiger Tank


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Goebel Tiger Tank

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Goebel Tiger Tank

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Goebel Panther Tank

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Goebel Panther Tank

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Goebel Panther Tank


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Goebel Panther Tank


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Goebel Panther Tank

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Goebel Panther Tank

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Goebel Panther Tank

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Goebel Sturmgeshutz


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Goebel Sturmgeshutz


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Goebel Sturmgeshutz

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Goebel Sturmgeshutz


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Goebel Sturmgeshutz


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Goebel Panzer IV

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Goebel Panzer IV


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Goebel Panzer IV

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Goebel Panzer IV

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Goebel Panzer IV

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Crown markings on the base
 - color enhanced

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Crown markings on the base
 - color enhanced

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Miss Fay's Collection!

Many thanks to Miss Fay for all the photos!

My Goebel ID models


Goebel Stug and Panther

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Goebel Stug
RGoebelStug2.jpg

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Goebel Stug
RGoebelStug4.jpg

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Goebel Stug

RGoebelStug5.jpg

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Goebel Stug

RGoebelStug6.jpg

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Goebel Stug
RGoebelPanther1.jpg

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Goebel Panther
RGoebelPanther2.jpg

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Goebel Panther
RGoebelPanther3.jpg

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Goebel Panther

RGoebelPanther4.jpg

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Goebel Panther

RGoebelPanther5.jpg

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Goebel Panther
RGoebel (1).jpg

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Goebel
Panther
RGoebel (3).jpg

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Goebel
Panther
RGoebel (4).jpg

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Goebel
Panther
RGoebel (11).jpg

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Goebel
Panzer IV - long barrel
RGoebel (12).jpg

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Goebel
Panzer IV- long barrel
RGoebel (13).jpg

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Goebel
Panzer IV - long barrel
RGoebel (14).jpg

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Goebel
Panzer IV - Short barrel
RGoebel (15).jpg

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Goebel
Panzer IV - Short barrel
RGoebel (16).jpg

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Goebel
long halftrack
RGoebel (17).jpg

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Goebel
long halftrack
RGoebel (18).jpg

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Goebel
long halftrack

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RGoebel (19).jpg

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Goebel
short halftrack
RGoebel (20).jpg

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Goebel
short halftrack
RGoebel.jpg

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Goebel
short halftrack
RGoebel (21).jpg

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Goebel
short halftrack
RGoebel (5).jpg

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Goebel?
KV-1
RGoebel (6).jpg

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Goebel?
KV-1
RGoebel (7).jpg

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Goebel?
KV--1

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RGoebel (10).jpg

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Goebel?
T-34
RGoebel (8).jpg

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Goebel?
T-34
RGoebel (9).jpg

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Goebel?
T-34


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A partial listing:

Model size color Base markings
Panzer IV 2 3/4" light tan Pz IV
Sturmgeschutz 2 5/8" light tan Sturmg
Tiger 3 5/8" dark tan 10 Tiger
Panther 3 7/8 dark tan 81 Panther
Sherman   olive drab Sher man 8
German halftrack (long)   light tan ? SPW
German halftrack (short)   light tan ? SP.W.
Hetzer (Jagpanzer 38)   light tan  
T-34/76   green  
T-34/85?   green  
KV-1   green KW.1
Churchill      

WWII US Military  Silhouette Models

RUSNavySilhouetteDornier1.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette:Dornier
RUSNavySilhouetteDornier3.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette:Dornier
RUSNavySilhouetteDornier2.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette:Dornier
RUSNavySilhouetteHE111b.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette: HE 111
RUSNavySilhouetteHE111a.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette: HE 111
RUSNavySilhouetteHE111c.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette: HE 111
RUSNavySilhouetteJU88a.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette: JU-88
RUSNavySilhouetteJU88b.jpg

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US Navy Silhouette: JU-88
Thanks to eBay member
 wingedprop for the
pictures of the Navy
models!

U.S. Army Air Corps Version

RArmySilhouetteDornierb.jpg

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RArmySilhouetteDornierClose1.jpg

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RAAFSilhouette3.jpg

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SihouetteFW190Envelope.jpg

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FW 190 Silhouette Model
Envelope
SilhoutteFW190cardb.jpg

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SilhouetteAssembled6.jpg

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SilhouetteAssembled2.jpg

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SilhouetteAssembled3.jpg

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SilhouetteAssembled5.jpg

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Metals were hard to come by, and shipping and logistics were often a problem. One answer, silhouette models made of cardboard. Each was die-cut and could be easily assembled. Once assembled, it provide a "silhouette" view of the aircraft for the soldier/trainee to memorize. Both the Army and the Navy issued these models.

Note the fact that the Army and Navy issue their own version of these models. The distinguishing mark is in the title box, which bears the mark of the appropriate branch of service.

On the civilian front, Sil-O-Model (a play on the word silhouette) released a series of models to the general public. Not a bad idea to train the general public to identify friendly and foreign aircraft. The threat of attack was still quite real, and a trained and vigilant civilian population was not a bad thing during this time.

RSilOModelFront.jpg

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RSilOModelBackb.jpg

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Other U.S. Recognition Aides


In addition to models, the US government also utilized other aides, such as books, posters, playing cards, and even kites!

Posters

RecognitionPoster1943a.jpg

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Recognition Poster 1943
RecognitionPoster1943b.jpg

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Recognition Poster 1943
RecognitionPoster1943c.jpg

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Recognition Poster 1943
RecognitionPoster1943d.jpg

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Recognition Poster 1943
RecognitionPosterInsignia1943.jpg

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Recognition Poster:
Insignia 1943
RecognitionPosterWEFT.jpg

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Recognition Poster: WEFT
Wings, Engine, Fuselage,
Tail
RIDPosterBigBEAUFORT.jpg

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Beaufort poster -
large format
note the WEFT approach
middle right

RIDPosterBigBEAUFORTinset.jpg

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Beaufort Inset, US Navy
release
RIDPosterBigSPITFIRE.jpg

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Spitfire poster -
large format

Handbooks and Manuals

Numerous handbooks were issued at various times throughout the war.

SilhoutteHandbookA.jpg

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Silhouette Handbook
SilhoutteHandbookB.jpg

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Silhouette Handbook


Recognition Training manual for Aviation Cadets - Pre-Flight school. This, and similar books, were used in the College Training Detachments (CDT). Cadets were sent to CDT for a period of time before being sent to Classification and pre-flight training.

RAviationCadetRecognitionBookTitle.jpg

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RAviationCadetRecognitionBookRear.jpg

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rear
RAviationCadetRecognitionBookFront.jpg

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front
RAviationCadetRecognitionBookGlossary.jpg

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Glossary
RAviationCadetRecognitionBookB17.jpg

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Aviation Cadet
Recognition Book
 B-17
RAviationCadetRecognitionBookA20.jpg

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Aviation Cadet
Recognition Book
A-20

Recognition cards

ID cards were issued to troops to help with training. These were playing card sized, and features pictures on one side, and silhouettes on the other. The US was features in 2 decks, one for Aircraft and one for Ships. The US Army aircraft deck was green, the US Navy Aircraft and Ships deck was dark blue. Other decks included British ships (red) and Japanese ships (yellow).

Rwwcards.jpg

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RArmyIDCardDeckBoxFront.jpg

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Army ID Card Deck
Front of Box
RArmyIDCardDeckBoxRear.jpg

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Army ID Card Deck
Rear of Box
RArmyIDCardDeckFront.jpg

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Army ID Card Deck
Front of Cards
RArmyIDCardDeckBack.jpg

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Army ID Card Deck
Back of Cards
JapaneseIDCardsFront.jpg

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JapaneseIDCardsRear.jpg

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RIDcardsBritishBoxFront.jpg

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RIDcardsBritishBoxRear.jpg

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RIDcardsBritishA.jpg

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RIDcardsBritishB.jpg

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RSpotterCardsReproduction.jpg

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Reproduction Set

Recognition Journal

RecognitionJournalJan44a1.jpg

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Recognition Journal
January, 1944
RecognitionJournalJan44b1.jpg

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Recognition Journal
January, 1944

24 issues of Recognition Journal were produced from September 1943 to August 1945.  As the war progressed,  existing weapons were modified and new planes, land vehicles and ships were introduced. The Army and Navy realized that they needed a way to keep the troops current. The Journal of Recognition (later renamed Recognition Journal) was created with the help of Life Magazine. In its pages was information regarding the newest vehicles from the Allies and the Axis, as well as "quizzes" to test the troops

RJORIDtypes.jpg

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From Recognition Journal
Types of material available
for recognition training


View Masters

The army also provided View Master reels. These could be used in a hand-held viewer, or projected onto a screen. They were created by the Jam Handy Corporation, renowned in the day for its "industrial" films and movies. Each frame showed a view of the plane at  a different distance and angle.

RJamHandyViewmasterCover.jpg

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Jam Handy View Master
Envelope
RJamHandyViewmasterReels.jpg

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Jam Handy View Master Reels
Junkers 87B and British Skua
JamHandyViewMasterClose3.JPG

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Jam Handy
ViewMaster
JamHandyViewMasterClose4.JPG

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Jam Handy
ViewMaster
JamHandyViewMasterClose1.JPG

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Jam Handy
ViewMaster
JamHandyViewMasterClose2.JPG

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Jam Handy
ViewMaster

Yet more training aides....

IDslide1b.jpg

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ID slide
IDslide2c.jpg

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ID slide
RJapaneseIDpicsFront.jpg

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ID Pictures on Newsprint
Japanese Planes, Front
RJapaneseIDpicsRear.jpg

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ID Pictures on Newsprint
Japanese Planes, Rear

 


Other German ID Models

RCHURCHILL.jpg

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Churchill
RCHURCHILL__1_.jpg

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Churchill - base
RT_34.jpg

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T-34
RTIGRE_II.jpg

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King Tiger
RTIGRE_I.jpg

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Tiger
RTIGRE_I__1_.jpg

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Tiger - base
RSHERMAN__1_.jpg

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Sherman
RSHERMAN__2_.jpg

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Sherman Base
RKV_1.jpg

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KV-1

Show above are pictures other German ID models of unknown heritage sent to me by Johan in France - Let me know if you have any information regarding these!

Like the Rodach Models, most of these are made of wood. Markings on the bottom indicate that the origin is Germany, and the specifications of the tank are also listed.

GermanIDPanther1.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther10.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther2.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther4.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther9.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther6.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther7.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther8.JPG

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Panther

GermanIDPanther3.JPG

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Panther
GermanIDPanther3b.jpg

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Panther
 

John D. had these pictures of a wood Panther tank. Thanks John!

 
RPzkw_IV.jpg

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Panzer IV
RPzkw_IV__1_.jpg

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Panzer IV

Finally, this Panzer IV is slush cast - similar to Comet, Framburg, and Dale, but lacks markings for definitive identification....

Thanks to Johan!

Below is a Churchill model courtesy of Ted. It is WWII vintage.

RTedsChurchill1.jpg

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Churchill
RTedsChurchill2.jpg

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Churchill
RTedsChurchill3.jpg

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Churchill
RTedsChurchill4.jpg

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Churchill

See more of Ted's collection up in the Rodach section
 

German ID Books

 

GermanIDBookCover.jpg

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German Ship ID Book
Cover
Circa 1942
GermanIDBook1a.jpg

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German Ship ID Book
Inside Cover
GermanIDBook1b.jpg

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German Ship ID Book
Inside cover
GermanIDBook5.jpg

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German Ship ID Book
British Ships
GermanIDBook4a.jpg

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German Ship ID Book
British Ships

Britain

RecognitionFrogDec1940.jpg

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Recognition models by Frog
December 1940

In Great Britain, Frog Penguin manufactured recognition models during WWII. These were models of  black wood with red writing.

RBritishAircraftRecognitionJuly1944pgFront.jpg

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Aircraft Recognition
July 1944
RBritishAircraftRecognitionJuly1944Rear.jpg

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Aircraft Recognition
July 1944
RBritishAircraftRecognitionJuly1944pg215.jpg

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Similar to the United States Recognition Journal, Aircraft Recognition was published by the British as a way to keep their troops current.


Japan

RJapaneseIDbook1.jpg

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Japanese ID book
RJapaneseIDbook2.jpg

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Japanese ID book
RJapanesePosterb2.jpg

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Japanese ID Poster
Reprinted in Recognition Journal

 


StromBecker

StromBecker models are worth a mention. Although sold in the early 1940's as spotter models, these models were not distributed to the military (reference:

Friend or Foe? Museum). Still, they had a strong influence on the culture of the time, and are sold as "spotter" models (as clearly stated on their box!) on eBay at at trade shows today . The models were solid wood models, pre-formed and ready for assembly.

StromBeckerB24v1.jpg

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Booklet from StromBecker
Model, circa 1946
(back and front cover, laid open flat)
StromBeckerB24v2.jpg

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Booklet from StromBecker
Model, circa 1946
interior
StromBeckerB24v3.jpg

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Booklet from StromBecker
Model, circa 1946
interior
StromBeckerB17v3.jpg

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Strombecker "spotter model"
StromBeckerB17c.jpg

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StromBeckerB17b.jpg

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StromBeckerB17e.jpg

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In addition to Aircrafts sets, StromBecker also made Ship and Tank models. Post-war it made toy soldier sets. As the toy line matured, StromBecker (a concatenation of Strombeck-Becker) became famous for it's slotcar sets, and its Tootsie Toy diecast models.

StromBeckerShipAdvert.JPG

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StromBecker Ship
Advertisement
StrombeckerIwoD.jpg

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 StromBecker Soldier Set
circa 1966
stromtoysoldier3.jpg

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StromBecker Wood
tank models
Toy Soldier Review Magazine
 

Recent Vintage Recognition Models

RecognitionModernEraBradley1.jpg

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Bradley
RecognitionModernEraBradley2.jpg

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Bradley
RecognitionModernEraBradley3.jpg

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Bradley
RecognitionModernEraCenturion.jpg

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Centurion
RecognitionModernEraCenturionB.jpg

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Centurion
RecognitionModernEraLeopardb.jpg

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Leopard
RecognitionModernEraLeopard.jpg

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Leopard
RecognitionModernEraM113b.jpg

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M113
RecognitionModernEraM113.jpg

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M113
RecognitionModernEraRussionBTR2.jpg

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Russian BTR?
RecognitionModernEraRussionBTR.jpg

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Russian BTR?
RecognitionModernEraRussionBTR3.jpg

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Russion BTR?
RecognitionModernEraT34.jpg

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T-64
RecognitionModernEraT34b.jpg

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T-64

Thanks to Sue for
the pictures!

 

My Model

RModernRecogFoam3.jpg

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RModernRecogFoam4.jpg

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RModernRecogFoam1.jpg

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RModernRecogFoam2.jpg

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Modern ID models are made generally made of cast plastic. The models shown above are from Fort Knox, US Army Armor Center. From the Armor School website: "The U.S. Army Armor School trains Armor and Cavalry Soldiers, Noncommissioned Officers, and leaders to fight in full spectrum operations to meet the requirements of the Army in the Contemporary Operating Environment.  The Armor School serves as the trainer for the current mounted force, and develops the tools for the future mounted force."

Commonly imprinted on these models are the letters "TASC" - an abbreviation of Training and Audiovisual Support Center....although now it would appear that the section is now called the TSP - Training Support Center. From the Devices Section of the TSP website: "Here at the Devices Section we have skilled craftsmen dedicated to producing realistic training devices.  Whether it's an exact replica of an M1A2 tank or a mock-up of an AT-4 Rocket Launcher, we can make it happen!  We even have our own Plastics Shop to produce multiple units from molds made in the shop.  So remember, if it's made from plastic or wood, the TSC Model and Device Shop can build it for you"

Modern Era ID Cards

RIDcards1977Box.jpg

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ID cards 1977
RIDcards1977a.jpg

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ID cards 1977
RIDcards1977b.jpg

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ID cards 1977
 
RIDCards1985BoxA.jpg

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ID Cards 1985
RIDCards1985BoxB.jpg

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ID Cards 1985
RIDCards1985front.jpg

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ID Cards 1985
RIDCards1985rear.jpg

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ID Cards 1985
 

Civilian Observers in WWII: the AWS

During the war, it became apparent that radar would not be sufficient in determining the threat of airborne attack. Early radar was primitive. It could detect incoming aircraft, but not identify the type or altitude. Further, low flying aircraft could evade the radar. The Army Air force sought to supplement it's early warning system by the creation of the Aircraft Warning Service in July of 1942 (the volunteers existed before then, but not in an official capacity)

The Aircraft Warning Service consisted of the Ground Observer Corps (GOC formed on July 15, 1942) and the Aircraft Warning Corps (AWC - formed on the 7th May of 1943). The GOC reported the flight of all aircraft (commercial and military) over US land. The AWC received and processed the reports in what was known as a Filter Center. The Filter Center coordinated visual reports with radar and other sources, often a very chaotic job.

AWSdecalFront.jpg

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AWS decal Front
AWSdecalREAR.jpg

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AWS decal Rear
AWSbookletFront.jpg

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AWS booklet Front
AWSbookletRear.jpg

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AWS booklet Rear
RAWSObserverArmband.jpg

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AWS armband
100 hours of service
AWSwings.jpg

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AWS wings
    AWSGOCcertificate.jpg

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AWS GOC certificate
RAWSCard1.jpg

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 AWS Card
RAWSCard5.jpg

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 AWS Card
RAWSCard3.jpg

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AWS Card
RAWSCard6.jpg

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AWS Card
RAWSCertificate.jpg

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AWS Certificate
RAWSletter1.jpg

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AWS letter
RAWSLetter2.jpg

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AWS Letter
RGOCJOR.jpg

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Journal of Recognition
Commentary on GOC
RGOCManualCover.jpg

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GOC Manual- Cover
RGOCManual1.jpg

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RGOCManual2.jpg

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RGOCManual3.jpg

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RGOCManual4.jpg

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RGOCManual5.jpg

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RGOCManual6.jpg

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RGOCManualSequence.jpg

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RGOCManual33.jpg

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GOC Manual pg33
RGOCManual34.jpg

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GOC Manual pg 34
RGOCManual51.jpg

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GOC Manual pg 51
RGOCManual52.jpg

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GOC Manual pg 52
       
RGOCspotterCardsBox.jpg

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GOC spotter cards
RGOCspotterCardsFront.jpg

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GOC spotter cards
RGOCspotterCardsRear.jpg

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GOC spotter cards
 

Civilians were on there own to learn what the silhouettes of the aircraft looked like until early 1943, when key observers were given 8 weeks of aircraft recognition training. It was hoped that these individuals would teach others. Volunteers were rewarded with armbands (100 hours), "wings", medals, and certificates. All in all, over 14,000 posts were manned. One estimate place the ultimate number of observers at 1.5 million persons! The service was deactivated on May 29, 1944.

 

Source: The Army Air Forces in WWII Volume 6: Men and Planes, Chapter 3: Air Defense of the United State, Wesley Craven and James Cate, Office of Air Force History, 1955

To the best of my knowledge, the pictures I have used are public domain.

 


 

 

References:

Fred Dorris' site, "Ships for the Military", has a lot of good information regarding Framburg, Comet, and South Salem Studios. Fred has also been kind enough to send me updated information on the history of Comet Metal Products and Bessarabis Models.

For a nice discussion of ID models from the 1940s (Dale, Framburg, Comet) got to

Jarek Skonieczny's WWII jeep recognition models page.

For more information on Dale ID models, go to the Jeeptoys website.

For information on Airplane ID models, go to the Friend or Foe? Museum

Robert Reader, "A Brief History of Monogram Models Inc., The First Forty Years", 2000

Charles Gayley, "Making Aircraft ID Models in WWI", Fine Scale Modeling, pp 50-52, May 2004

Moderhack, Werner and Wagner, Ray, Goebel: The Collectors Guide, Vol. 1, Turner Publishing Company, 2002, pg VIII -XIII

Miller, Robert, The No. 1 Price Guide to MI Hummel, 9th Ed. Portfolio Press, 2003, pg 537

Miller, Robert, 20 Years of "Miller on Hummel" Columns, Collectors News, 1998, pg 181-183

A Short History of Recognition Models

A lot of Authenticast information at S. Berliner III's Comet/Authenticast webpage

More Authenticast information at Alnavco and steelnavy.com

Historic Aviation Memorial Museum: http://www.tylerhamm.com/exhibit-models.htm

The Army Air Forces in WWII Volume 6: Men and Planes, Chapter 3: Air Defense of the United State, Wesley Craven and James Cate, Office of Air Force History, 1955

And finally, my

Authenticast tank, Authenticast airplanes, and Comet Metal Products pages for more information.

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